Bolalik davrida spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilishni oldini olish uchun ota -onalar

By 08.09.2021 08.09.2021

Shubhasiz, spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish Amerika madaniyatining bir qismidir, shuningdek, ota -onalar va bolalar o'rtasidagi xavflar haqida suhbatlar. Spirtli ichimliklar hayotning turli bosqichlarida odamlarga turlicha ta'sir qiladi - bolalar va o'smirlar uchun spirtli ichimliklar miyaning normal rivojlanishiga xalaqit berishi mumkin. Spirtli ichimliklar ta'siri va ota -onalarning farzandlari hayotidagi o'rni o'zgarishi, ular etuk va mustaqil bo'lishga intilishlari, spirtli ichimliklar haqida gapirishni qiyinlashtirishi mumkin. Ota -onalar spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish bo'yicha aniq oilaviy siyosatni belgilashda qiyinchiliklarga duch kelishlari mumkin. Va ular bolalar va o'smirlar bilan spirtli ichimliklar bilan bog'liq muammolar haqida muloqot qilishni qiyinlashtirishi mumkin.

Tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, o'smirlar va yoshlar ota -onalari spirtli ichimliklar ichish -qilmasligiga o'z so'zlarini aytishlari kerak deb o'ylashadi. Ota -onalar tarbiyasi muhim - rag'batlantirish, iliqlik va to'g'ri intizom bilan tarbiyalangan o'spirinlar ota -onalarning chegaralarini hurmat qilishlari mumkin. Ota -onalarning bolalarga ongli va ongsiz harakatlari orqali ta'sirini, shuningdek, bolalar bilan spirtli ichimliklar haqida qachon va qanday gaplashishni tushunish, ota -onalarga bolaning spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilishiga ular ta'siridan ko'ra ko'proq ta'sir qilishiga yordam beradi. Ota -onalar farzandlariga ichimlik xavfini minimallashtirishda sog'lom munosabatni shakllantirishda muhim rol o'ynashi mumkin.

Yoshlar tomonidan spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish

O'smirlik davrida spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish keng tarqalgan muammo bo'lib qolmoqda. Spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qiladigan o'smirlar foizi asta -sekin kamayib bormoqda; shunga qaramay, raqamlar hali ancha yuqori. O'smirlarning 25,6 foizga yaqini 8 -sinfgacha, taxminan 41,7 foizi 12 -sinfga qadar hech bo'lmaganda bir marta mast bo'lganligi haqida xabar berishgan. 1

Ota -onalar tarzi

To'plangan dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish, ayniqsa, ichkilikbozlik - o'smirlarning rivojlanishiga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatishi va keyinchalik hayotda spirtli ichimliklarga qaram bo'lish xavfini oshirishi mumkin. 2,3 Bu, ota -onalarning iloji boricha ichishni kechiktirishga yoki oldini olishga yordam berish zarurligini ko'rsatadi. Ota -ona tarbiyasi ularning farzandlari spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish bo'yicha tavsiyalariga amal qilishlariga ta'sir qilishi mumkin. Har bir ota -ona o'ziga xosdir, lekin har bir ota -ona o'z farzandlari bilan qanday munosabatda bo'lishini to'rt turga bo'lish mumkin:

  • Authoritarian parents typically exert high control and discipline with low warmth and responsiveness. For example, they respond to bad grades with punishment but let good grades go unnoticed.
  • Permissive parents typically exert low control and discipline with high warmth and responsiveness. For example, they deem any grades at all acceptable and fail to correct behavior that may lead to bad grades.
  • Neglectful parents exert low control and discipline as well as low warmth and responsiveness. For example, they show no interest at all in a child’s school performance.
  • Authoritative parents exert high control and discipline along with high warmth and responsiveness. For example, they offer praise for good grades and use thoughtful discipline and guidance to help improve low grades. 4

Regardless of the developmental outcome examined—body image, academic success, or substance misuse—children raised by authoritative parents tend to fare better than their peers. 5 This is certainly true when it comes to the issue of underage drinking, 6 in part because children raised by such parents learn approaches to problem solving and emotional expression that help protect against the psychological dysfunction that often precedes alcohol misuse. 7 The combination of discipline and support by authoritative parents promotes healthy decision making about alcohol and other potential threats to healthy development. 8

Modeling

Some parents wonder whether allowing their children to drink in the home will help them develop an appropriate relationship with alcohol. According to most studies this does not appear to be the case. In a study of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders, researchers observed that students whose parents allowed them to drink at home and/or provided them with alcohol experienced the steepest escalation in drinking. 9 Other studies suggest that adolescents who are allowed to drink at home drink more heavily outside of the home. 10 In contrast, adolescents are less likely to drink heavily if they live in homes where parents have specific rules against drinking at a young age and also drink responsibly themselves. 11 However, not all studies suggest that parental provision of alcohol to teens leads to trouble. For instance, one study showed that drinking with a parent in the proper context (such as a sip of alcohol at an important family function) can be a protective factor against alcohol misuse. 12 In other contexts, parental provision of alcohol serves as a direct risk factor for alcohol misuse, as is the case when parents provide alcohol for parties attended or hosted by their adolescents. Collectively, the literature suggests that permissive attitudes toward adolescent drinking, particularly when combined with poor communication and unhealthy modeling, can lead teens into unhealthy relationships with alcohol.

Genetics

Regardless of what parents may teach their children about alcohol, some genetic factors are present from birth and cannot be changed. Genes appear to influence the development of drinking behaviors in several ways. Some people, particularly those of Asian ancestry, have a natural and unpleasant response to alcohol that helps prevent them from drinking too much. Other people have a naturally high tolerance to alcohol, meaning that to feel alcohol’s effects, they must drink more than others. Some personality traits are genetic, and those, like impulsivity, can put a person at risk for alcohol misuse. Psychiatric problems may be caused by genetic traits, and such problems can increase risk for alcohol use disorder. Finally, having a parent with a drinking problem increases a child’s risk for developing an alcohol problem of his or her own. 13

Do Teens Listen?

Adolescents do listen to their parents when it comes to issues such as drinking and smoking, particularly if the messages are conveyed consistently and with authority. 5 Research suggests that only 19 percent of teens feel that parents should have a say in the music they listen to, and 26 percent believe their parents should influence what clothing they wear. However, the majority—around 80 percent—feel that parents should have a say in whether they drink alcohol. Those who do not think that parents have authority over these issues are four times more likely than other teens to drink alcohol and three times more likely to have plans to drink if they have not already started. 5

O'smirlarning ichish masalasida ota -onalarga murojaat qilishlari statistik jihatdan ota -onalarning ota -onalari bilan bog'liq. Xususan, nufuzli ota -onalar - intizom va qo'llab -quvvatlashning sog'lom va izchil muvozanatini ta'minlaydiganlar - ichkilikbozlik va boshqa xulq -atvor bilan bog'liq chegaralarni hurmat qiladigan o'smirlarga ega bo'lish ehtimoli ko'proq; Holbuki, ruxsat berilgan, avtoritar yoki beparvo ota -onalarga duch kelgan o'smirlarga ota -onalarining ichkilik haqida aytganlari kamroq ta'sir qiladi. 5

Tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, tarbiya uslubidan qat'i nazar, agar ota -onasi ichsa, ular bundan xafa bo'lishini biladigan o'spirinlar buni qilish ehtimoli kamroq, bu ota -onalar va o'smirlar o'rtasidagi muloqotning voyaga etmagan spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilishdan himoya chorasi sifatida namoyon bo'lishini ko'rsatadi. 12

Ota -onalar nima qila oladi?

Ota -onalar o'smirlarning ichishni qachon va qachon boshlashiga, shuningdek, bolalarining qanday ichishiga ta'sir qiladi. Oilada o'smirlarning uyda ichishi va ota -onalarning o'zlari qanday ichishi haqidagi siyosati muhim ahamiyatga ega. Masalan, agar siz ichishni tanlasangiz, har doim mas'uliyatli spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qiling. Ammo, ota -onalar, o'smirning ichishni tanlash ehtimolini kamaytirish uchun nima qilishlari mumkin va agar bu sodir bo'lsa, muammoli bo'lib qolishi mumkinmi? 14 -tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, quyidagilar muhim:

Erta va tez -tez, bolalar va o'smirlar bilan spirtli ichimliklar haqida sizning tashvishlaringiz va ularning tashvishlari haqida rivojlanishiga mos keladigan tarzda gapiring. Yoshlarning ichkilikbozlik haqidagi ota -onasining fikrini biladigan o'smirlar, ehtimol, ularning umidlariga mos keladi.

Siyosatni erta belgilang va umidlarni belgilashda va qoidalarni bajarishda izchil bo'ling. O'smirlar, ota -onalar ichish to'g'risida qaror qabul qilishda o'z so'zini aytishi kerak deb o'ylashadi va ular bu xabarni qonuniy deb bilsalar, ota -onaning hurmatini saqlaydilar. Muvofiqlik qonuniylikning markaziy qismidir.

Boshqa ota -onalar bilan birgalikda bolalar qaerda to'planishini va nima qilayotganlarini kuzatib boring. O'smirlarning hayotiga aralashish ularning xavfsizligini ta'minlashning kalitidir.

Voyaga etmaganlar ichkilikbozligi va uni bartaraf etish bo'yicha chora -tadbirlarni yaratish va amalga oshirish to'g'risida muloqotni targ'ib qilish uchun hamjamiyatda va u bilan ishlash.

O'z davlatingizga o'z farzandlaringizni spirtli ichimliklar bilan ta'minlash to'g'risidagi qonunlardan xabardor bo'ling.

Hech qachon boshqa birovning bolasiga spirtli ichimlik bermang.

Bolalar va o'smirlar ko'pincha ota -onalarning ta'siriga bo'ysunish va ularga qarshi turishga intilishadi. Bolalik davrida muvozanat odatda moslashishga intiladi, lekin o'smirlik davrida o'smirlik balog'at yoshidagi avtonomiyaga tayyorgarlik ko'rayotganda muvozanat ko'pincha qarshilik tomon siljiydi. Ochiq, hurmatli muloqot va chegaralar va umidlarni tushuntirish bilan ota -onalar o'z farzandlarining qarorlarini o'smirlik va undan keyingi davrlarga ta'sir qilishda davom etishlari mumkin. Bu, ayniqsa, yoshlarning ichish -ichmaslik haqidagi qarorlarida muhim ahamiyat kasb etadi.

Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun quyidagi manzilga tashrif buyuring: www.niaaa.nih.gov.

Manbalar

1 Miech, RA; Shulenberg, JE; Jonston, LD; Bachman, JG; O'Malli, Bosh vazir; va Patrik, ME "Giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilish bo'yicha kelajakdagi milliy so'rov natijalarini kuzatish", 1975-2020. Jadval 1: 8, 10 va 12. sinflarda turli xil dorilarni qo'llashning umr bo'yi tarqalish tendentsiyalari. Ann Arbor, MI: Ijtimoiy tadqiqotlar instituti, Michigan universiteti, 2020. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/ saytida mavjud. ma'lumotlar/20data/table1.pdf. 2021 yil 8 -yanvarda kirilgan.

2 Grant, BF va Dawson, DA Spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish yoshi va uning DSM -IV spirtli ichimliklarni suiiste'mol qilish va qaramlik bilan bog'liqligi: Milliy bo'ylama alkogolli epidemiologik tadqiqot natijalari. Narkotik moddalarni suiiste'mol qilish jurnali 9: 103-110, 1997.

3 Squeglia, LM; Jacobus J .; va Tapert, SF. O'smirlarning miya rivojlanishiga moddaning ta'siri. Klinik EEG va nevrologiya 40 (1): 31-38, 2009.

4 Baumrind, D. Bolalarda ota -onalarning intizomiy shakllari va ijtimoiy kompetentsiyasi. Yoshlar va jamiyat 9: 238–276, 1978.

5 Jekson, C. Erta o'smirlik davrida ota -ona vakolatining qonuniyligi va tamaki va spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish. O'smirlar salomatligi jurnali 31 (5): 425-432, 2002.